Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine, which may be categorized as non-structural — meaning the curve is temporary and the spine is structurally normal — or structural, meaning that the spine has a fixed curve. Scoliosis may affect the cervical (upper), thoracic (middle) and lumbar (lower) regions of the spine. The curves, which veer to the left or right, often looks like a “C” or “S” shape.
Scoliosis may be caused by a birth defect, neuromuscular disorder, injury, or infection of the spine. The structural changes in the spine from scoliosis may also result in several secondary conditions, such as spinal stenosis (the abnormal narrowing of the spine) and foraminal stenosis (a narrowing of the open spaces in the lumbar spine).